Communicating using
technological methods
 Before recorded writing
Visual, auditory and ancillary methods (non-electrical)
  • Smoke signal
    • Used to signal danger, gather people to an area, or transmit news
    • Used by the Chinese, Greek, Japan, German, Rome, and the North American Indigenous People
  • Drums
    • China used it to motivate troops(military)
    • Help set a marching pace(military)
    • Call an order(military)
     Before the oil age
Beginning steps to transmitting sound across distances
  • Electric telegraph(morse code)
    • With 2 telegraphs connected by wire, you could send messages by pressing and releasing a trigger in intervals
    • Created by Samuel Morse and his friends Alfred Vail and Leonard Gale
  • First transatlantic telegraph cable
    • Project idea by Cyrus Fields from New York
    • Created for US and England to be connected by telegraph
    • Finally completed in August 1858
  • Wireless Telegraphy
    • Nikolai Tesla first to transmit radio waves
    • Patented his work, but shortly after, Guglielmo Marconi claimed Tesla had copied his work, but Marconi’s claim was found to be false
Electromagnetic, fiber optics, internet, and electronic waves
  • First transcontinental phone call
    • by Alexander Bell to his assistant
    • Made long distance calling by land-lines possible
  • First experimental video call
    • AT&T decided to try a two-way experimental video call service called Iconophone
    • Idea did not make a lot of profit to the company, and therefore was abandoned
  • VOIP Internet telephone
    • Phone calls capable of transmitting over a computer through the Internet
    • Long distance charges not applicable


    • The study and manipulation of elements on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale
    • Can be applied onto other fields such as chemistry, physics, biology, and engineering
    • Making objects such as cars, motors, robots in an atomic scale

Bigger animation

  • Sunscreen
    • contain nanoparticles of zinc oxide or titanium oxide
    • old sunscreen contain bigger particles, therefore having the white color
    • New sunscreens, however, have smaller particles, so they are clear
  • Scratch resistant coatings
    • aluminum silicate nanoparticles makes coating more effective
    • increases durability to chipping and scratching
    • scratch resistant coatings found on many items, including cars, windows, lenses, sunglasses, etc.
  • TV displays
    • Carbon nanotubes firing electrons and phosphor TV screens
    • Developer says it will be brighter, sharper, more energy efficient, and cheaper than flat-panel TV screens
  Government Support
  • Investment
    • Japan-750 million dollars
    • European Union-1.2 billion dollars
    • US-3.7 billion dollars
  • Advocacy Groups
    • Some say that nanotechnology should be closely monitored by governments because of environmental impacts, health, privacy, and terrorism
    • Others say that being closely monitored will stifle research speeds and slow down development that can be applied to other fields
  Nanotechnology in Military
  • Liquid Body Armor
    • during normal situations, it is similar to water
    • allows for easy movement
    • during impact, it stiffens, protecting the human wearing it
    • composed of hard particles, suspended in liquid form
  • Nanofabrics
    • Camouflages soldiers
    • Active camouflage
      • uses panels that change their colors, reflectivity, and luminance according to the environment
      • provides complete concealment from visual perspective
    • extreme water resistance
                                  Medical Technology
“Any invention that may be used for safe and effective prevention, diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of illness and disease. This includes the pharmaceuticals, devices, procedures and organizational systems used in health care[1]”
   Recent Accomplishments
  • In 1900, the life expectancy of a US citizen was 47 years, but with more advanced health technologies, the number increased from 47 to 77 years in just one hundred years[3].
  • After Amit Goffer realized that he would be in a wheelchair for life, he decided to make a system that would allow people with spinal cord injuries to be able to walk again. Although it took him more than a decade, he finally developed it, called Rewalk.
    • Claire Lomas used ReWalk to complete the London Marathon 16 days after it started[2]
  • A neurosurgeon and two former air force officers decided to bring flight simulation technology to surgery. It uses images and 3d scans to render models of patient’s brains. The goal is similar to flight simulators:provide surgeons experience doing it before it actually counts.

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